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A.  Future Tense:

1.  Affirmative Sentence

    The structure of future tense in Khmer language is similar to English.  The auxiliary (នឹង ) is used in front of the main verb in a sentence.   The structure of the simple future tense is:

Subject + Auxiliary   (នឹង) + Main Verb + Object

Example:

Affirmative Sentence

Subject + (នឹង) + Main Verb + Object
យើង នឹង ទៅ មើល កុន
We will go to see a movies
យើង នឹង ទៅ លេង ឪពុក របស់យើង
We will go to visit his father
ខ្ញុំ នឹង រៀន ភាសាខ្មែរ
I will study Khmer
គាត់ នឹង មកដល់ ភ្នំពេញ
He will arrive in Phnom Penh
ពួកគេ នឹង ចូលចិត្ដ អាហារ ខ្មែរ
They will like Khmer food

2.  Negative Sentence

    For negative sentences in the simple future tense, we insert "មិន" between the auxiliary verb and main verb and particle "ទេ " at the end that sentence.

Subject + Auxiliary   (នឹង) +

មិន

+

Main Verb + Object + ទេ

Example:

Negative Sentence

Subject + (នឹង) +

not

+ Main Verb + Object + ទេ
យើង នឹង មិន ទៅ មើល កុន ទេ
We will not go to see a movies
យើង នឹង មិន ទៅ លេង ឪពុក របស់យើង ទេ
We will not go to visit his father
ខ្ញុំ នឹង មិន រៀន ភាសាខ្មែរ ទេ
I will not study Khmer
គាត់ នឹង មិន មកដល់ ភ្នំពេញ ទេ
He will not arrive in Phnom Penh
ពួកគេ នឹង មិន ចូលចិត្ដ អាហារ ខ្មែរ ទេ
They will not like Khmer food

3.  Interrogative Sentence

    For question sentence the simple future tense, we insert "តើ " at the beginning of the sentence and particle "មែនទេ " at the end of sentence.

តើ

+

Subject

+ Auxiliary   (នឹង)

+

Main Verb + Object + មែនទេ ?

Example:

Negative Sentence

តើ + Subject + (នឹង) + Main Verb + Object + មែនទេ ?
តើ យើង នឹង ទៅ មើល កុន មែនទេ ?
will We go to see a movies
តើ យើង នឹង ទៅ លេង ឪពុក របស់យើង មែនទេ ?
will We go to visit his father
តើ នាង នឹង រៀន ភាសាខ្មែរ មែនទេ ?
will I study Khmer
តើ គាត់ នឹង មកដល់ ភ្នំពេញ មែនទេ ?
will He arrive in Phnom Penh
តើ ពួកគេ នឹង ចូលចិត្ដ អាហារ ខ្មែរ មែនទេ ?
will They like Khmer food

Note:

    The auxiliary verb (នឹង ) has the same pronunciation to the conjunction and preposition (និង ) but the spelling of these two words are different.  The vowel ( ) is used for the auxiliary (នឹង ) and vowel ( ) is used for the conjunction and preposition.

 

B.  Adverb of Time for Future Tense

    Adverb of time is very important in Khmer future tense, it provides precise information about future.   Adverb of time uses for future includes:

Adverb of Time

ពេលក្រោយ Next time   ថ្ងៃក្រោយ Next time (One day)  
ថ្ងៃស្អែក Tomorrow   ខែក្រោយ Next month  
ថ្ងៃខានស្អែក The day after tomorrow   ឆ្នាំក្រោយ Next year  

    Khmer adverb of time is usually found at the beginning or at the end of the sentence.

Example:  Adverb of time is used at the beginning of a sentence.

Affirmative Sentence

Adverb of Time + Subject + (នឹង) + Main Verb + Object
ថ្ងៃស្អែក យើង នឹង ទៅ មើល កុន
We will go to see a movies
ខែក្រោយ យើង នឹង ទៅ លេង ឪពុក របស់យើង
We will go to visit his father
ឆ្នាំក្រោយ ខ្ញុំ នឹង រៀន ភាសាខ្មែរ
I will study Khmer
ថ្ងៃខានស្អែក គាត់ នឹង មកដល់ ភ្នំពេញ
He will arrive in Phnom Penh
ថ្ងៃក្រោយ ពួកគេ នឹង ចូលចិត្ដ អាហារ ខ្មែរ
They will like Khmer food

 

Example:  Adverb of time is used at the end of a sentence.

Affirmative Sentence

Subject + (នឹង) + Main Verb + Object + Adverb of Time
យើង នឹង ទៅ មើល កុន ថ្ងៃស្អែក
We will go to see a movies
យើង នឹង ទៅ លេង ឪពុក របស់យើង ខែក្រោយ
We will go to visit his father
ខ្ញុំ នឹង រៀន ភាសាខ្មែរ ឆ្នាំក្រោយ
I will study Khmer
គាត់ នឹង មកដល់ ភ្នំពេញ ថ្ងៃខានស្អែក
He will arrive in Phnom Penh
ពួកគេ នឹង ចូលចិត្ដ អាហារ ខ្មែរ ថ្ងៃក្រោយ
They will like Khmer food

C.  Present Tense with Connecting Verb (គឺ ) + Adjective

    1.  Affirmative Sentence with Connecting Verb (គឺ ) + (Adjective)

        The meaning of connecting verb (គឺ ) is  (be, is) as in the sentence below:

                                                                                                                                        

Subject

+

Connecting verb (គឺ )

+

Adjective

+

Adverb of Degree (Optional )

 

Example:

Affirmative Sentence with Connecting Verb (គឺ ) + (Adjective)

                

Subject

+

(គឺ )

+

Adjective

+

Adverb of Degree (Optional)

ព្រឹកនេះ

គឺ

ត្រជាក់

ណាស់

This morning

is

cold

very

ថ្ងៃនេះ

គឺ

ក្ដៅ

ណាស់

Today

is

hot

very

គាត់

គឺ

ចិត្ដល្អ

ណាស់

He

is

kind

very

នាង

គឺ

ស្អាត

ណាស់

She

is

beautiful

very

ពួកគេ

គឺ

ឆ្លាត

ណាស់

They

are

clever

very

ខ្ញុំ

គឺ

ទាប

ណាស់

I

am

short

very

 

Note:

bulletThe position of Adverb of Degree (ណាស់ ) is proceeding after an adjective.
bulletThe connecting verb (គឺ ) is not very important in the sentence, it can be dropped in the affirmative sentence and the sentence still carries the same meaning in both spoken or written form.

Example:

Affirmative Sentence with Connecting Verb (គឺ ) + (Adjective)

                

Subject

+

+

Adjective

+

Adverb of Degree (Optional)

ព្រឹកនេះ

ត្រជាក់

ណាស់

This morning

is

very cold

ថ្ងៃនេះ

ក្ដៅ

ណាស់

Today

is

hot

very

គាត់

ចិត្ដល្អ

ណាស់

He

is

kind

very

នាង

ស្អាត

ណាស់

She

is

beautiful

very

ពួកគេ

ឆ្លាត

ណាស់

They

are

clever

very

ខ្ញុំ

ទាប

ណាស់

I

am

short

very

 

 

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    2.  Negative Sentence with Connecting Verb (គឺ ) spkr.gif (282 bytes) + (Adjective)

    The negative sentence of simple sentence, with connecting verb (គឺ ),  is form by inserting the negative word  ( មិន ) spkr.gif (282 bytes) after the connecting verb (គឺ ) and add particle (ទេ ) at the end of that sentence.  Particle (ទេ ) can be deleted from the negative sentence, but it doesn't sound natural.

Subject +

Connecting verb (គឺ )

+ មិន +

Adjective

+

ទេ

Example:

Negative Sentence with Connecting Verb (គឺ ) + (Adjective) + ទេ

                

Subject

+

(គឺ )

+

( មិន )

Adjective

+

Particle (ទេ )

ព្រឹកនេះ

គឺ

មិន

ត្រជាក់

ទេ

This morning

is

cold

ថ្ងៃនេះ

គឺ

មិន

ក្ដៅ

ទេ

Today

is

hot

គាត់

គឺ

មិន

ចិត្ដល្អ

ទេ

He

is

kind

នាង

គឺ

មិន

ស្អាត

ទេ

She

is

beautiful

ពួកគេ

គឺ

មិន

ឆ្លាត

ទេ

They

are

clever

ខ្ញុំ

គឺ

មិន

ទាប

ទេ

I

am

short

 

Note:

bulletThe connecting verb (គឺ ) is not very important in the negative sentence, it can be dropped and it still carries the same meaning in both spoken or written form.

Example:

Negative Sentence with Connecting Verb (គឺ ) + (Adjective) + ទេ

                

Subject

+

( មិន )

Adjective

+

Particle (ទេ )

ព្រឹកនេះ

មិន

ត្រជាក់

ទេ

This morning

is

not

cold

ថ្ងៃនេះ

មិន

ក្ដៅ

ទេ

Today

is

not

hot

គាត់

មិន

ចិត្ដល្អ

ទេ

He

is

not

kind

នាង

មិន

ស្អាត

ទេ

She

is

not

beautiful

ពួកគេ

មិន

ឆ្លាត

ទេ

They

are

not

clever

ខ្ញុំ

មិន

ទាប

ទេ

I

am

not

short

 

 

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    3.  Interrogative Sentence with Connecting Verb (គឺ ) spkr.gif (282 bytes) + (Adjective)

    The Interrogative clause, with connecting verb (គឺ ),  is form by adding particle (តើ ) at the beginning of the clause and follows by ( ឬទេ ) at the end of the clause.

តើ + Subject +

Connecting verb (គឺ )

+

Adjective

+

ឬទេ ?

Example:

Interrogative Sentence with Connecting Verb (គឺ ) + (Adjective) + ឬទេ ?

                

តើ

+

Subject

+

(គឺ )

+

Adjective

+

Particle (ឬទេ )

តើ

ព្រឹកនេះ

គឺ

ត្រជាក់

ឬទេ ?

is

This morning

cold

តើ

ថ្ងៃនេះ

គឺ

ក្ដៅ

ឬទេ ?

is

Today

hot

តើ

គាត់

គឺ

ចិត្ដល្អ

ឬទេ ?

is

He

kind

តើ

នាង

គឺ

ស្អាត

ឬទេ ?

is

She

beautiful

តើ

ពួកគេ

គឺ

ឆ្លាត

ឬទេ ?

are

They

clever

តើ

ខ្ញុំ

គឺ

ទាប

ឬទេ ?

am

I

short

 

 

Note:

bulletThe connecting verb (គឺ ) is not very important in the Interrogative sentence, it can be dropped and it still carries the same meaning in both spoken or written form.

Example:

 

Interrogative Sentence with Connecting Verb (គឺ ) + (Adjective) + ឬទេ ?

                

តើ

+

Subject

+

Adjective

+

Particle (ឬទេ )

តើ

ព្រឹកនេះ

ត្រជាក់

ឬទេ ?

is

This morning

cold

តើ

ថ្ងៃនេះ

ក្ដៅ

ឬទេ ?

is

Today

hot

តើ

គាត់

ចិត្ដល្អ

ឬទេ ?

is

He

kind

តើ

នាង

ស្អាត

ឬទេ ?

is

She

beautiful

តើ

ពួកគេ

ឆ្លាត

ឬទេ ?

are

They

clever

តើ

ខ្ញុំ

ទាប

ឬទេ ?

am

I

short

 

 

footerleft.gif (855 bytes)