the use of word qaoy

  ម្សិលមិញ  ហើយ ណាស់ ពេក

អន់ជាង លើសគេ បាទ អាចដែរ

មិន ទេ។ តែ  លែង  ហើយ ប៉ុនា្មន

ជាដំបូង បើពុំនោះទេ ទោះអី្វក៏ដោយ

H5 - TIME ADVERBS

        - QaaLNaa  TerB  YerNG   CHeNH  DomNer ? (When will we depart ?) [YerNG  CHeNH   DomNer  QaaLNaa ?]
        - QaaLNaa   Papa  MorK  DawLL (When Papa arrives) .
        - PaiLNaa  BaaN  Vea   CHHouP ? (When will they stop ?) [Vea  CHHouP  PaiLNaa ?]
        - MiN  DuNG  PaiLNaa   Té (I don't know when) .

        NB : Le mot Naa , en affirmatif, joue aussi le rôle de pronom relatif : QoaT  CHRaeuN  MorK   DaL  TH/NGaii  Naa  YeuNG  aT'  MeaN  LouY (Elle arrive généralement le jour nous n'avons pas d'argent) . Si on remplace TH/NGaii   par  QaaL  ou  PaiL , on obtient une conjonction (ou locution conjonctive) : QoaT  CHRaeuN  MorK  DaL  QaaL  Naa   YeuNG  aT'  MeaN  LouY (Elle arrive généralement quand nous n'avons pas d'argent) .
        L'archaque  THMaeu   Naa  veut dire : quelle hauteur du soleil . PReuK (Au matin) ; TH/NGaii  TRaNG' ( midi) ; RorSirL (Après-midi) ; L /NGeaCH (Le soir) ; aaTHReaT (Minuit) ; YouP (La nuit) ; PRorLiM ( l'aube) . MorK  DoL   THMaeu  Naa  Ko  [PaiL  Naa  Ko]  [QaaL  Naa  Ko]  BaaN   DèR ! (Vous pouvez arriver n'importe quand !).

1) Past : QNoNG  BoRaNaQaaL ( l'aube des temps) ; CHHNam  Tov (last year) ; KHae  MooN (last month) ; aTiT  MooN (last week) ; MSeL  MeNH (yesterday) ; MSeL  M/NGaii (the day before yesterday) ; Pee   MooN (before) ; QaaL  Pee  You  MorK  HoeY (once upon a time) ; Tank  Pee  Nooh  MorK (since then) ; amBaiNH  MeNH (just, a little time ago) [amMeNH  amMeNH  NuNG] ; HoeY (already) ; BaaN (already and successfully) ; BaTT (already and ironically) ; CHorL (already and disdainfully) ; CHeNH (already and with result) ; RoorCH (already and despite difficulty) ; QirT (already and surprisingly) ; Vea  HeerB  NiNG  NGerB (Il allait incessamment se lever) . Tov  CHea  enCHunk  QirT ! (How was this possible ?) .

        2) Present : T/NGaii   Nihh (today) ; eiLoV  Nihh (now) ; PLeaM   PLeaM (right away) ; PaiL  Nihh (presently) ; QNoNG  PaCHoBBaNaQaaL (for the time being) ; SoPP  T/NGaii (nowadays) ; KH/om  TerB  NiNG  CHaPP  PHDerM (Je viens juste de commencer) ; QuarT  QamPoNG  Taè   Dé (She is currently sewing) ; YerNG  CHeNH  eiLoV  HoeY (Nous allons tout de suite sortir) .

        3) Future : CHHNam  KRoY (next year) ; KHae  KRoY (next month) ; aTiT  KRoY (next week) ; S/aeK (tomorrow) ; KHaN  S/aeK (after tomorrow) ; T/NGaii  KRoY (later on) ; QNoNG   aNaaQooT (in the future) ; T/NGaii  Naa  MooY (one of these days) ; BaNTeCH  TeerT  Nihh (any minute now) ; QNoNG  PaiL  CHHaBB  CHHaBB  Nihh (any time soon) ; MiN  You  Té (soon) ; TCHaP  Pee  PaiL   Nihh  Tov (from now on) ; YerNG  QoNG  NiNG   CHomNeNH (We surely will make benefits) ; Vea  CHBaaS  CHea  KHaaT (They clearly will loose money) , etc.

        4) Miscellaneous : PaiL   Nooh (Then, ...) ; PHLeerM  Nooh [MooY  RomPiCH  Nooh] (Aussitôt, ...) ; BoNToaB  MorK (Secondly) ; MDoNG  TeerT (Once again) ; CHea   BongHoeY (Finally) ; CHea  oY [CHea  iK  oY] (Often) ; QMeaN  MDoNG  Naa  LoeY ! [oTT  MDoNG  Naa  Saoh !] (Never !) ; MooN  PaiL (Early) ; HoorS  PaiL [QRoY   PaiL] (Late) ; CHea  NiCH (Always) ; RwaL   DoNG  [RwaL  PaiL] (Every time) ; RwaL   T/NGaii (Each day) ; YouYou  MDoNG (Time to time) ; MDoNG (Once) . SeT  SocK  SiNN (Se peigner les cheveux d'abord) .
        MDoNG  PeeDoNG  [MDoNG  M/YeerM] (Once or twice) ; Taè  MDoNG (All at once) ; YerNG  DaeL  MorK (We formerly came here) ; Vea  TLoarB   Tov (He used to go there) ; oY  SReCH  Taè  MDoNG (Once and for all) ; PHLeerM  [PHLaT]  [ViNG]  [MooY  RomPiCH] (Immediately) ; MooN  DomBohNG  [PHDerM  LurNG] (To start with) ; CHea  TMay  TeerT (De nouveau) ; You  MorK  HoeY (For a long time) ; Tank  Pee  PaiL  Nooh  MorK (Dès lors) ; Tank  Pee  eiLov (Dès maintenant) ; ToaNN   PaiL  VéLea  [ToaNN] (On time) ; You (Longtemps) ; MooY   SanTooh (For a while) ; CHHaPP (Quickly) ; MooN (Before) ; KRoY (After) ; QNoNG  PaiL  CHea  MooY  QNea (At the same time) . YerNG  ouSSaa  CHoorB-QNea (We frequently met) ; RoBoSS  Nihh  QomRaw  MeerN  NaSS (This object exists very rarely) ; QuarT  Ror-Ac-Ror-UoL  RorHohT (She was sobbing relentlessly).

H6 - QUANTITY ADVERBS

        MeerN  aNG/Qaw  QRouP   QRoaNN (There is enough rice) . THorQ  LMorM  TiNH (Cheap enough to buy) . KHor  Nihh  SLeerK  LMorM (These trousers fit [one's] size) . SVai  Nihh  PH/aeM  NaaSS (This mango is very sweet) . SourN  See  CHRurN (Sourn eats a lot) . Vea   PHeK  TeerT (Il boit encore) . SoK  See  TeCH (Sok eats a little) . QuarT   SèN  SRaNaoh  SRoK (He misses so much his country) . Melissa  Daw  S/aaT (So beautiful Melissa) . MDai   VeaY THaeM (La mère frappa en plus) . Qué  TReM  Taè  [QRoaNN  Taè]  CHaPP  Vea   Té (They only caught him) . MiN  TReM   Taè  DacK  KHNaoh  Vea  (Not only handcuff him) . THaeM  TairNG  Vaii  Vea   TeerT (Hit him moreover) . YerNG  CHH/aeT   QRouP  QRoaNN (We're quite fed) . QoaTT  KHuNG  MaeNTaeN (Il est tout à fait furieux) . Vea  KHLaiNG  DèR (He's strong too) . CHehh  STer (Savoir à peu près) . PHLiCH  PairK  QanDaaL (Oublier à moitié) . PoNMaaN ? (How much ?) . PoNMaaN  NairK ? (How many people ?) . THoM  PoNNaa ? (How big ?) . THoM  PoNNihh (This big) . PRaVaeNG  Naa ? [VaeNG  PoNMaaN ?] (How wide ?) . VaeNG  PoNNuNG (That wide) . LoorK  THohK (Vendre à bas prix) . LoorK  THLaii (To sell dearly) . CHHu  KHLaiNG (Souffrir beaucoup) . Learn  PéK (Too fast) . THLaii  PoNMaaN  Qaw   TiNH  MorK ! (However expensive it is, buy it !) . In the latter example, Qaw  is a conjunction .

        Cas particulier : MuoY   DaNG  [MDaNG]  (Une fois ; Once) , Pi  DaNG  (Deux fois ; Twice) , Béi  DaNG (Trois fois ; Thrice)  sont déjà ou peuvent être considérés comme des adverbes de quantité : THVaaY  BangKoum  Béi  DaNG (Se prosterner trois fois) . Dans une phrase complète, tout adjectif numéral cardinal suivi du substantif de quantification présente un caractère adverbial : NairK-QRou  VeaY   SeuS  Pi  RumPoaT (L' institutrice frappa l' élève de deux coups de rotin) . Nous pouvons dire   MDaaY  oY  KohN  PRamm  RirL (La mère donna à l' enfant cinq riels) ,  mais nous ne pouvons pas dire  MDaaY  oY  KohN  SKo-QRoaB . Il nous faut réarranger la phrase : MDaaY  oY  SKo-QRoaB  Tov  KohN (La mère donna des bonbons à l' enfant) . Nous verrons plus en détail le comportement des compléments d'objet au Chapitre L - La Phrase.

H7 - ADVERBES DE COMPARAISON

        Ils suivent généralement l'adjectif, l'adverbe ou le verbe dont ils modifient le sens. Mais d'abord quelques uns de ceux qui précèdent l'adjectif, l'adverbe ou le verbe à comparer (pré-adverbes) :
        - TumNiNH  Nihh  THLaii (Cette marchandise est chère) ; SaaCH'  Nihh  CHohh   THLaii (Cette viande est moins chère) ; PHLè   CHumPou  LaeuNG  THLaii (Les prunes sont plus chères) .
        - TiNH  THLaii (Acheter cher) ; LourK  CHohh  THLaii (Vendre moins cher) ; LourK  LaeuNG   THLaii (Vendre plus cher) . CHohh  COTE (Moins coté[e]) ; LaeuNG  COTE (Plus coté[e]) .
        - aNN  CHHu (Souffrir moins) ; KaaNN-Taè   CHHu (Souffrir de plus en plus) .
        Ces constructions sont assez figées. Quand il y a deux entités face à face, on préfère d'autres tournures comme suit :

        1) galité : KRoCH  THLaii   DoCH  THouRéN (Les oranges sont chères comme les durions) ; SaaCH'  MoiN  THaoK  SMaeu  SaaCH'  CHRouK (La viande de poulet est aussi bon marché que celle de porc) ; KHLèNG  Haeu  LeuaN  SMaeu  eNTRi (Le faucon vole vite autant que l'aigle) ; PHLè  PCHE   CHH/NGaiNH  PRaHèL  PHLè  SVaaY (La pêche goûte à peu près comme la mangue) ; Sehh  RorT  LeuaN  DèR   [PRaHèL-QNea]  [DoCH-QNea]  [SMaeu-QNea] (Le cheval court aussi vite) ; KRoCH  NiNG  THouRéN  THLaii  DoCH-QNea (Les oranges et les durions sont pareillement chers) . Dans ces exemples, seuls les comparateurs DèR , PRaHèL-QNea , DoCH-QNea  et SMaeu-QNea  sont, par emploi, des adverbes ou des locutions adverbiales .

        2) Inégalité : Avec le comparateur CHeaNG, à la fois adverbe et conjonction qui veut dire Plus, Plus ... que, a semblerait une comparaison à sens unique. Mais la plupart des qualificatifs ont leurs opposés : KHPuoS  CHeaNG (Plus haut [que]), TeaB  CHeaNG (Plus bas [que]). VerNG  CHeaNG (Plus long [que]), KHLéi  CHeaNG (Plus court [que]). CHReuV  CHeaNG (Plus profond [que]), RairK  CHeaNG (Moins profond [que]). THLaii  CHeaNG (Plus cher [que]), THaoK  CHeaNG (Meilleur marché, moins cher [que]).
        Exemple : Napoléon  TeaB  CHeaNG  Louis (Napoléon est moins grand de taille que Louis), Manon  S/aaT  CHeaNG ! (Manon est plus belle !).

        2a) Infériorité : TeCH (Peu ; Peu nombreux) est l'adverbe et l'adjectif inverses de CHRaeuN (Beaucoup ; Nombreux). TeCH  CHeaNG veut donc dire Moins nombreux, une notion concrète, comptable. Mais TeCH, ou du moins son homophone, est aussi l'inverse de KHLaiNG, un adverbe (et adjectif) qui signifie "Haut, Fort" [NiYeaY  TeCH  TeCH  =  Parler à voix basse ; CHHu  KHLaiNG  =  Souffrir beaucoup]. TeCH   CHeaNG a donc également un sens abstrait de Moins, Moindre.
        Mais l'usage du comparatif TeCH CHeaNG comme comparateur d'infériorité (Moins) ne s'applique qu' à des verbes, adverbes et adjectifs qui admettent sémantiquement le mot TeCH comme adverbe : HaT'  TeCH (Peu fatigué), KRaMao  TeCH (Peu foncé), PRaLaaK'  TeCH (Peu sali), etc.
        Exemple: KHo  Vea  PRaLaaK'  TeCH  CHeaNG  aaV (Son pantalon est moins sale que sa chemise). TH/NGaii  Nihh  MeaN  MoNouS  TeCH   CHeaNG (Aujourd'hui il y a moins de monde). TeaHeaN  MeaN  TeCH  CHeaNG  POLICE (Les soldats étaient moins nombreux que les policiers). SRaLaiNH  BaNG  TeCH   CHeaNG  P/ohN (Aimer l'aîné moins que le cadet).
        Le composé  aNN   CHeaNG  s'utilise aussi de la même faon : Fred  THVeu-KaaR   aNN  CHeaNG  Frank (Fred travaille moins efficacement que Frank) [alors que  THVeu-KaaR  TeCH  CHeaNG  Frank  =  travaille moins que Frank] . PourK  A  LéNG  aNN  CHeaNG   PourK  B (L'équipe A joue moins bien que la B) [alors que   LéNG  TeCH  CHeaNG  PourK  B   =  joue moins souvent que la B] .

        2b) Supériorité : De la même faon, CHRaeuN  CHeaNG  ,  KHLaiNG  CHeaNG  ,  QRoanBaeu   CHeaNG (Mieux [que])  ou  CHeaNG  tout court s'emploient sélectivement selon la compatibilité sémantique de l'adjectif, de l'adverbe ou du verbe à comparer : Raoul   CHHu  KHLaiNG  CHeaNG  Michel (Raoul avait plus mal que Michel). SamDéi  BanCHHu  CHeaNG   RumPoaT (La parole fait plus mal que le fouet). PRaHèL  Qué   MorK  CHRaeuN  CHeaNG  MouN (Ils viendraient plus nombreux qu'avant). Vea  TRoV-MoaT  CHRaeuN   CHeaNG  aiNH (Il a eu plus de savon que moi). MeL  Qou   QRoanBaeu  CHeaNG   MoNH (Mel dessine mieux que Monh) [alors que  Qou  CHeaNG  MoNH  =  dessine plus que Monh] .

        3) Locutions comparatives : La décence interdisant de dire "aKRoK  CHeaNG ... (plus laide que ...)" , diverses nuances d'infériorité, de supériorité et de similarité sont exprimées par des locutions comparatives : Jeanne  CHHLaaT  MiN   DaL Marie  (Jeanne n'est pas aussi intelligente que Marie).
        On peut remplacer  MiN DaL (Pas jusque)  par  MiN DoCH (Pas comme) ,  MiN SMaeu (Pas autant que)   ou par  MiN BaaN (Pas à la hauteur de) . Souvent, l'élément de négation  MiN  est placé devant l'adjectif :  Jeanne   MiN  CHHLaaT  DaL   Marie  .
        Pour la supériorité, on peut remplacer  CHeaNG   par d'autres adverbes :  HourS (Au-delà [de]),  LeuS (En excès [de]),  la négation desquels exprime une similarité nuancée : Quentin   KHLaiNG  MiN  LeuS  mile  (Quentin n'est pas plus fort qu'mile) .

        4) Superlatif : L'adverbe  BamPHoT  s'applique à presque tous les adjectifs et adverbes :  S/aaT  BamPHoT (La [les] plus jolie[s]) . L /or  BamPHoT (Le [la, les] meilleur[e, s, es]) . aKRoK  BamPHoT (Le [la, les] pire[s]) . SamLéNG   TeCH  BamPHoT (La voix la plus basse) . SRoK  DèL  MeaN  MoNouS  TeCH  BamPHoT (Le pays le moins peuplé) .
        L'adverbe  BaNG'/aS'   a un usage plus limité, peut-être à cause de son contenu sémantique :  aS'   =  y en a plus . Nous ne disons pas  CHou  BaNG'-aS'   mais  CHou  BamPHoT  pour  le (la, les) plus aigre(s) .CHoNG  BaNG'-aS' [Z  KRauY  BaNG'-aS'] (Le tout dernier Z) . LaaN  MouKH  BaNG'-aS' (La première voiture [du cortège]) . NeaK  MorK  DaL'   MouN  BaNG'-aS' (Le [La] premier [ère] arrivant[e]) .

        4a) Locutions superlatives : Le composé  CHeaNG  Qué , bien que  Qué  soit un pronom personnel, s'applique aussi aux animaux et aux choses :  YorK  aa-THom  CHeaNG   Qué  MorK ! (Prends le plus grand !) . PouKè   CHeaNG  Qué  TairNG  aSS (Plus doué que tout le monde) . ToCH  CHeaNG  Qué   CHeaNG  èNG (Plus petit que tout un chacun) . videmment on peut remplacer  CHeaNG  par  HourS   ou  LeuS  ou même par  PHoT (Dépassant) . Pour les choses abstraites ou concrètes :  CHeaNG  a/Véi   TairNG  aSS (Plus ... que tout) . KHPourS  PHoT   aKaS (Plus haut que l' atmosphère) . acTHiKaR  PHoT  LéKH (Inspecteur hors classe) .

H8 - OPINION ADVERBS

        1) Affirmation : BaaT (Yes [male]) , CHaaS (Yes [female]) , Eu  [Aer] (Yes [informal]) , EnCHunk  HoeY (C'est a) , TRoV  HoeY (All right) , EnCHunk  Qaw  BaaN (OK, a va) , PiT  HoeY  [PRaQoD  HoeY]  [CHBaS  HoeY] (Bien sûr) , DochNehh  MèN (Effectively) , PHTooY   Tov  ViNH  Té (Si, au contraire) , CHea   Qar  THammaDa (Of course) , L /aw (Good, Fine) , EnCHunk  MèN (Mais oui) .
        oT  PRaQaeK  BaaN (Undeniably) , oT  CHH/NGall  Té (No surprise) , PonNunk   HoeY ! [LMorM  HoeY !] [BahN  HoeY !] (Enough !) , RoorCH  HoeY ! (It's over !) , oSS  HoeY ! (Nothing left) , CHoP  HoeY ! (Fini !) , HoeY   HoeY ! (Done !) , MeerN ! (Il y en a !) , Nov ! (Il en reste !) .

        2) Negation : At first, let's notice that contrary to the English or the French, the Khmer are answering "Yes, I don't" or "Yes, it isn't" to confirm your negative question, not to introduce their own phrase :
        BaaT  [BaaT   Té] (No [male]) , CHaaS  [CHaas  Té] (No [female]) , Eu  [Aer]  [Té] (No [informal]) , Qom (Don't) , MiN  [eT] (Not) ; oT (Not ; None) , Nov  [Nov  Té] ! (Not yet !) . There is an archaic equivalent of  MiN , eT  and  oT : Poom.  CHHouP   SiNN ! (Hold it !) . Qom  ahL  SiNN ! (Wait !) . CHamm  MuoY  PHLaeT (Wait a minute) .

QuarT  MiN  YorK   
QuarT  LaèNG  YorK  HoeY 
Vea  MiN  SoV  KaaCH   
NairK  MiN  BaaCH'  TVer   
YerNG  MiN  DaeL  KHerNH  Saoh 
oT  PHLoV  Té 
QuarT  oT  SKorL  NairK-Naa  Té 
Qom  TVer  Away-oY-Saoh ! 
aeNG  MiN  TRoV  SomLaPP  LoeY 
KH/om  MiN  DuNG  Saoh 
Qué  MiN  TairNG  YorK  PHonk 
aiNH  MiN  SoV  SQorL  Vea  Dae  [Té] 
Vea  Qaw  MiN  [Qaw  oT]  DuNG  Dae 
aa-Nooh  LaèNG  PHooT  RorHohT 
QuarT  TVer  Taè  Toc   
Qué  MiN  QooR  CHorL   
RerNG  EnCHunk , YerNG  MiN  [oT]  CHur  TorL-Taè-Saoh 
Qué  MiN  ToaNN  Sonk 
She does not take it 
She doesn't take it any more 
Il n' est guère méchant 
You don't need to do it 
We never have seen it 
No way 
Elle ne connaissait personne 
Don't do anything ! 
Tu ne tueras point 
I'm not at all aware of it 
They don't even take it 
I do not know him enough 
Neither did he know about it 
Ce c... ne mentiras plus jamais 
He fabricates but tables 
They should not scrap it 
Such a story, we'll never believe it 
They do not build it yet

      3) Doubt : PRaHaeL   Dae (Probably) ; aaCH  Dae (Maybe) ; TaaM  TumNorNG (Apparently) ; DoCH-CHea  EnCHunk   MaeN (Vraisemblablement) ; TaaM  SMaaN (I guess so).

        4) Interrogation : Here are some interrogative adverbs that we generally repeat over again in our answering :

   
CHohL  BahN  Té ? (Is entering possible ?) 
aeNG  QiT  CHeNH  Té ? (Anything out of your thoughts ?) 
aeNG  LurK  RoorCH  Té ? (Can you lift it ?) 
CHamm-BaaCH'  LeerNG  Ay ? (Why is it necessary to wash it ?) 
aeNG  See  QirT  Té ? (Could you eat it ?) 
aeNG  MeerN  Camion  MuoY  MaeN  Té ? (Is it true that you've got a truck ?) 
aeNG  TVer  ToaNN  Té ? (Will you be on time ?) 
Yes 
BahN 
CHeNH 
RoorCH 
 
QirT 
MaeN 
ToaNN 
No 
MiN  BahN  Té 
MiN  CHeNH  Té 
MiN  RoorCH  Té 
MiN  BaaCH'  Té 
MiN  QirT  Té 
MiN  MaeN  Té 
MiN  ToaNN  Té 

     ae-Naa (Where) , Pee-Naa (From where) , TaaM-Naa (By where) , DoL-Naa (Up to where) , Tov-Naa (To where) , QaaL-Naa (When) , PRuoh-Away (Why?) , YaaNG-MeCH (How) , PonMaaN (Combien) , Ru  Té (Or not) , Ru   Nov (Or not yet) , CHohh-Ber (If) , Pee-AngQaaL (When) , LeerNG   TVer-Away ? (Why wash it ?) . MDeCH  Qaw (Why ...) .

H9 - ADVERBES DE LIAISON

        Qeu  THaa (c'est-à-dire) , DochNehh (Donc, Ainsi, Par conséquent) , Leus   Pi  Nihh (En plus, En outre, Moreover) , M/YaaNG  TirT (D'ailleurs, Par ailleurs) , Tuoh  YaaNG  Naa  [Ko] (Néanmoins) , DauY  HèT  Nihh (En conséquence) , PHTuY   Teuv  ViNH (Par contre, En revanche) , DochNehh  MèN (En effet) , MuN  A/Véi  TairNG  oSS (Avant tout) , PHDaeuM  LaeuNG (Tout d'abord) , BanToaP   MorK (Ensuite) , YaaNG  TeCH (Au moins) , Baeu  MiN  EnCHiNG  Té (Sans quoi) , MuoY   CHamNèK  TirT (D'autre part) , CHea   ouTeaHoR (Par exemple) ...

H10 - NGATION DE L'ADVERBE

        Puisque beaucoup d'adverbes s'emploient aussi comme verbes et adjectifs, il est normal qu'ils se comportent comme des verbes et des adjectifs vis-à-vis de la négation et de l'interrogation. Par exemple, le khmer préfère la phrase  Qo  RorT  MiN  LeuaN   Té  à la proposition  Qo  MiN  RorT  LeuaN   (Les boeufs ne courent pas vite). En affirmatif, on rencontre souvent des remarques du genre : RorK  KaaR  THVeu  MiN  BaaN (Chercher vainement du travail) ;  DeNH   CHaaB  MiN  ToaNN (Pourchasser inutilement) ;  SaSé  MiN  CHoP (Rédiger interminablement) . MeuL  2  MiNouT  Ko  MiN  KHeuNH (Regarder sans voir même après 2 minutes) [Si en forme active] . En forme passive, la proposition précédente signifiera : Invisible même après 2 minutes d'observation) .

H11 - Qaw, A SPECIAL ADVERB

        We have already seen it in  Away-Qaw-DoY (Whatsoever) a.s.o. But  Qaw  also works by itself :  TRawSock  SRoV  Qaw  MeerN (There are also honeydew melons) . LoaK  Dim  Qaw   MorK (Mr Dim has shown up too) . LoaK  Din  Qaw  Vea  CHaPP (They arrested also Mr Din) . SRay  AiNH  L /aw  Qaw L /aw , NGor   Qaw  NGor (My girlfriend is as beautiful as she's capricious) . MDeCH-Qaw  aeNG  TVer   DochNehh ? (Why did you do so ?) . SohmBay   LoaK  Bit  Qaw  Vea  BaiNH  CHaoL (They executed even Mr Bit) . LoaK  Bol  Qaw-DoY (Even Mr Bol) . CHLaT  Qaw  MiN  CHLaT , KLao  Qaw  MiN  KLao (Neither smart nor stupid) . aeNG  See  eiLoV  Qaw  BaaN , S/aeK  Qaw  BaaN (You may eat it either now or tomorrow . aeNG  See  Qaw  SQorM , MiN  See  Qaw  SQorM (Either you eat it or not, you'll stay skinny) . KH/NHom  QiT  Qaw  MiN  CHeNH , TunTiNH  Qaw  MiN  CHamm (Neither idea from my thinking nor right word from my reciting) . TunSai  Qaw  RoorCH , TRay  RoaS   Qaw  RoorCH (Both the rabbit and the trout were getting away) . Ber  aeNG  MiN  Tov   [Té] , aiNH  Qaw  MiN   Tov  [Dae]  (Si tu n'y vas pas, je n'y vais pas non plus) .

H12 - INTERJECTION

        On peut citer les exclamations suivantes tout en remarquant que les équivalents donnés ne sont qu'approximatifs : Yi ! (Gee !) , Nèr ! (Hé !) , Aii-Yaa ! (Ah !) , oNH   Nouh ! (Hé bien ! a alors !) , oeY ! (Aîe !) , CHuoY  PHaNG ! (Help ! Au secours !) , LauK  euY ! (Pitié !) , PReah   euY ! (Grands dieux !) , PouTTHo ! ( Bouddha !) , PRaYaaT  Naa ! (Attention !) , JaYo ! (Hourra !) , HawK ! (Eh ! Psst !) , N'aHaeuY ! (Bah !) , S/éi ! (Quoi !) , Yiih ! (Zut !) , NGoaB HaeuY ! (Par exemple ! Pas possible !) , VeuY ! (Ohé !) , ...Véi ! (...Hein !) , CHom ! (Diable !) , EnCHiNG  KaeuT ! (Mince alors !) , SReCH ! (Hélas ! Dommage !) .
 

CRITURE ANCIENNE 
 
SENS 
 
Hier Déjà Très Trop Moins_bien Le_plus Oui Peut-être Ne..pas Ne..que Ne..plus Combien D'abord Sinon Malgré_tout
CRITURE NOUVELLE 
 

De gauche à droite et de haut en bas : MSeL-MeNH,   HaeuY,  NaaS',  PéK,  aNN  CHeaNG,  LeuS  Qué,  BaaT,  aaCH-DèR,  MiN ... Té,   ... Taè,  LèrNG ... HaeuY,   PonMaaN,  CHea-DamBauNG,  Baeu   Poum-Nouh-Té,  Tuoh  A/Véi-Ko-DoY. suivre et ... à débattre dans camdisc@cambodia.org !

 

 

 

Noun

There is not much difference between a noun in English and a noun in Khmer.  A noun refers to a person, name, place, and things.

Examples:

English Khmer English Phonetic
book es[vePA siev-phoah
school salaer[n sa-lar-rean
university sklviTal&y sa-kal-vi-tyea-lai
student kUnsisS kuon-seous
teacher elakRKU louk-kru

Noun Phrase

A noun phrase is composed of a noun with or without its modifiers.

Examples:

English Khmer English Phonetic
a cup EBg bhaeng
the black cup on the table EBgexAenAelItu bhaeng-khmao-nau-ler-dhok

Verb

Most verbs in Khmer are used exactly like English verbs.  There is a corresponding "ing" added to the verb to turn it into a noun, such as, "boating is enjoyable if you can swim" (karCiHkaNUtGacsb|yebIG±kecHEhlTwk) and to change a verb into its continuous tense, such as, "I am doing my homework" (`kMBugeZVIlMhat').  However, there is no corresponding "to" to make a verb into its infinitive form, such as, "I want to eat" (`cg'jauM).

Examples:

English Khmer English Phonetic
she runs to the market. Kat'rt'eTApSar kuat-rout-dhou-phsar
he eats so fast. Kat'jauMelInNas' kuat-yum-leun-nah

Verb Phrase

A verb phrase is comprised of a verb and one or more adverbs.

Examples:

English Khmer English Phonetic
she reads very fast. Kat'Ganel}nNas' kuat-arn-leun-nah
he finished very quickly. Kat'eZVIcb'y"agel}n kuat-thveur-chob-yarng-leuon

Adverb

Adverb always follows verb.  Although adverb usually follows the adverb it modifies, there are times when it precedes it.  For example, the adverb "very" has two meanings in Khmer: Nas' (nah) or y"ag (yarng).  Nas' (nah) always follows the adverb it modifies, but y"ag (yarng) always precedes the adverb it modifies.  You may also use both Nas' (nah) or y"ag (yarng) in the same sentence in the same way as "very very" or "so very" is used in English.  In Khmer, we cannot use Nas' (nah) in front of Nas' (nah) or y"ag (yarng) in front of y"ag (yarng) to mean more.   In some cases, the phrase "very X" is repeated to mean "very very X" (X stands for an adverb or an adjective).

Nas' (nah) or y"ag (yarng) also apply to adjectives.

Examples:

English Khmer English Phonetic
he walks very fast. Kat'edIry"agel}n kuat-darh-yarng-leuon
I like it so very much. `cUlcitva
y"ageRcInNas'
khyom-chul-chet-vea-
yarng-chreon-nah
This house is beautifully decorated. pHenHtubEtg
:ny"agsat
ph-dhaeh-nih-dhob-dhaeng-
barn-yarng-saardh

Adjective

Adjective always follows the noun it modifies.

Examples:

English Khmer English Phonetic
This is a huge house. pHenHZM ph-dhaeh-nih-thom
She is a pretty lady. nagCaRsIsat naeng-chea-sar-trae-saardh
     

Gerund

In English, a verb can be turned into a noun by adding "ing" to the end of the verb in its simplest form, such as, "learning", "running", "eating", etc.  In Khmer, a verb can also be turned into a noun by adding these prefixes in front of the verb (kar) or (esckI).  In some cases, one is prefix is used.  In other cases, the other is used.  There is no known rule determining which should be used for when.  Nonetheless, the sounding of the combined word generally determines which should be used.

Examples:

English Khmer English Phonetic
Being here makes me so happy. karenATIenHeZVIo
`sb|aycitNas'
kar-nau-dhe-nih-thvoeu-oy-
kyum-sar-bai-chet-nah
Assuming usually leads to mistakes.

(Assumption usually leads to mistakes.)

esckIsan
ZmtanaMeGayman
kMhus
sech-kdei-smarn-
thom-dar-norm-oy-mein-
kom-hoh

Reflexive Pronouns

You can use a reflexive pronoun to refer back to the subject of the clause or sentence.

The reflexive pronouns are "myself," "yourself," "herself," "himself," "itself," "ourselves," "yourselves," and "themselves." Note each of these can also act as an intensive pronoun.

Each of the highlighted words in the following sentences is a reflexive pronoun:

Diabetics give themselves insulin shots several times a day.
The Dean often does the photocopying herself so that the secretaries can do more important work.
After the party, I asked myself why I had faxed invitations to everyone in my office building.
Richard usually remembered to send a copy of his e-mail to himself.
Although the landlord promised to paint the apartment, we ended up doing it ourselves.

Intensive Pronouns

An intensive pronoun is a pronoun used to emphasise its antecedent. Intensive pronouns are identical in form to reflexive pronouns.

The highlighted words in the following sentences are intensive pronouns:

I myself believe that aliens should abduct my sister.
The Prime Minister himself said that he would lower taxes.
They themselves promised to come to the party even though they had a final exam at the same time.

  .

 

 

To change a pronoun to its possessive form, simply add the word rbs' in front of the pronoun.

English Khmer English Phonetic
my, mine rbs'` roa-bos-khyom
your, yours rbs'G±k roa-bos-naek
your, yours (toward a younger person, young enough as a sibling) rbs'bn roa-bos-pha-oun
your, yours (toward an older person, old enough as a sibling) rbs'bg roa-bos-bong
your, yours (toward a younger person, young enough to be one's child) rbs'ky roa-bos-khmuoy
your, yours (toward an older man, old enough to be one's father) rbs'BU roa-bos-bhu
your, yours (toward an older woman, old enough to be one's mother) rbs'mIg roa-bos-meing
his, her, hers rbs'Kat' roa-bos-kuat
their, theirs rbs'ek roa-bos-ke

Examples:

English Khmer English Phonetic
This is my car. enHKWLanrbs'` nih-kue-larn-roa-bos-khyom
This is her youngest son. enHKWCakUneBArbs'Kat' nih-kue-chea-koun-peue-roa-bos-kuat

To change a noun to its possessive form, reposition the noun after the noun it possesses.

Examples:

English Khmer English Phonetic
That is the house's roof. enaHKWCadMbUlpH nus-kue-chea-dom-boul-pha-taeh
This is the car's seat. enHKWCaeCIgm"aLan nis-kue-chea-choeung-ma-larn

 

 

 

A possessive adjective (``my,'' ``your,'' ``his,'' ``her,'' ``its,'' ``our,'' ``their'') is similar or identical to a possessive pronoun; however, it is used as an adjective and modifies a noun or a noun phrase, as in the following sentences:

I can't complete my assignment because I don't have the textbook.

In this sentence, the possessive adjective ``my'' modifies ``assignment'' and the noun phrase ``my assignment'' functions as an object. Note that the possessive pronoun form ``mine'' is not used to modify a noun or noun phrase.

What is your phone number.

Here the possessive adjective ``your'' is used to modify the noun phrase ``phone number''; the entire noun phrase ``your phone number'' is a subject complement. Note that the possessive pronoun form ``yours'' is not used to modify a noun or a noun phrase.

The bakery sold his favourite type of bread.

In this example, the possessive adjective ``his'' modifies the noun phrase ``favourite type of bread'' and the entire noun phrase ``his favourite type of bread'' is the direct object of the verb ``sold.''

After many years, she returned to her homeland.

Here the possessive adjective ``her'' modifies the noun ``homeland'' and the noun phrase ``her homeland'' is the object of the preposition ``to.'' Note also that the form ``hers'' is not used to modify nouns or noun phrases.

We have lost our way in this wood.

In this sentence, the possessive adjective ``our'' modifies ``way'' and the noun phrase ``our way'' is the direct object of the compound verb ``have lost''. Note that the possessive pronoun form ``ours'' is not used to modify nouns or noun phrases.

In many fairy tales, children are neglected by their parents.

Here the possessive adjective ``their'' modifies ``parents'' and the noun phrase ``their parents'' is the object of the preposition ``by.'' Note that the possessive pronoun form ``theirs'' is not used to modify nouns or noun phrases.

The cat chased its ball down the stairs and into the backyard.

In this sentence, the possessive adjective ``its'' modifies ``ball'' and the noun phrase ``its ball'' is the object of the verb ``chased.'' Note that ``its'' is the possessive adjective and ``it's'' is a contraction for ``it is.''

 

 

Demonstrative Pronouns

A demonstrative pronoun points to and identifies a noun or a pronoun. "This" and "these" refer to things that are nearby either in space or in time, while "that" and "those" refer to things that are farther away in space or time.

The demonstrative pronouns are "this," "that," "these," and "those." "This" and "that" are used to refer to singular nouns or noun phrases and "these" and "those" are used to refer to plural nouns and noun phrases. Note that the demonstrative pronouns are identical to demonstrative adjectives, though, obviously, you use them differently. It is also important to note that "that" can also be used as a relative pronoun.

In the following sentences, each of the highlighted words is a demonstrative pronoun:

This must not continue.

Here "this" is used as the subject of the compound verb "must not continue."

This is puny; that is the tree I want.

In this example "this" is used as subject and refers to something close to the speaker. The demonstrative pronoun "that" is also a subject but refers to something farther away from the speaker.

Three customers wanted these.

Here "these" is the direct object of the verb "wanted".

Interrogative Pronouns

An interrogative pronoun is used to ask questions. The interrogative pronouns are "who," "whom," "which," "what" and the compounds formed with the suffix "ever" ("whoever," "whomever," "whichever," and "whatever"). Note that either "which" or "what" can also be used as an interrogative adjective, and that "who," "whom," or "which" can also be used as a relative pronoun.

You will find "who," "whom," and occasionally "which" used to refer to people, and "which" and "what" used to refer to things and to animals.

"Who" acts as the subject of a verb, while "whom" acts as the object of a verb, preposition, or a verbal.

The highlighted word in each of the following sentences is an interrogative pronoun:

Which wants to see the dentist first?

"Which" is the subject of the sentence.

Who wrote the novel Rockbound?

Similarly "who" is the subject of the sentence.

Whom do you think we should invite?

In this sentence, "whom" is the object of the verb "invite."

To whom do you wish to speak?

Here the interrogative pronoun "whom " is the object of the preposition "to."

Who will meet the delegates at the train station?

In this sentence, the interrogative pronoun "who" is the subject of the compound verb "will meet".

To whom did you give the paper?

In this example the interrogative pronoun "whom" is the object of the preposition "to."

What did she say?

Here the interrogative pronoun "what" is the direct object of the verb "say."

Relative Pronouns

You can use a relative pronoun is used to link one phrase or clause to another phrase or clause. The relative pronouns are "who," "whom," "that," and "which." The compounds "whoever," "whomever," and "whichever" are also relative pronouns.

You can use the relative pronouns "who" and "whoever" to refer to the subject of a clause or sentence, and "whom" and "whomever" to refer to the objects of a verb, a verbal or a preposition.

In each of the following sentences, the highlighted word is a relative pronoun.

You may invite whomever you like to the party.

The relative pronoun "whomever" is the direct object of the compound verb "may invite".

The candidate who wins the greatest popular vote is not always elected.

In this sentence, the relative pronoun is the subject of the verb "wins" and introduces the subordinate clause "who wins the greatest popular vote". This subordinate clause acts as an adjective modifying "candidate."

In a time of crisis, the manager asks the workers whom she believes to be the most efficient to arrive an hour earlier than usual.

In this sentence "whom" is the direct object of the verb "believes" and introduces the subordinate clause "whom she believes to be the most efficient". This subordinate clause modifies the noun "workers."

Whoever broke the window will have to replace it.

Here "whoever" functions as the subject of the verb "broke".

The crate which was left in the corridor has now been moved into the storage closet.

In this example "which" acts as the subject of the compound verb "was left" and introduces the subordinate clause "which was left in the corridor." The subordinate clause acts as an adjective modifying the noun "crate."

I will read whichever manuscript arrives first.

Here "whichever" modifies the noun "manuscript" and introduces the subordinate clause "whichever manuscript arrives first." The subordinate clause functions as the direct object of the compound verb "will read."

Indefinite Pronouns

An indefinite pronoun is a pronoun referring to an identifiable but not specified person or thing. An indefinite pronoun conveys the idea of all, any, none, or some.

The most common indefinite pronouns are "all," "another," "any," "anybody," "anyone," "anything," "each," "everybody," "everyone," "everything," "few," "many," "nobody," "none," "one," "several," "some," "somebody," and "someone." Note that some indefinite pronouns can also be used as indefinite adjectives.

The highlighted words in the following sentences are indefinite pronouns:

Many were invited to the lunch but only twelve showed up.

Here "many" acts as the subject of the compound verb "were invited".

The office had been searched and everything was thrown onto the floor.

In this example ,"everything" acts as a subject of the compound verb "was thrown."

We donated everything we found in the attic to the woman's shelter garage sale.

In this sentence, "everything" is the direct object of theverb "donated."

Although they looked everywhere for extra copies of the magazine, they found none.

Here too the indefinite pronoun functions as a direct object: "none" is the direct object of "found."

Make sure you give everyone a copy of the amended bylaws.

In this example, "everyone" is the indirect object of the verb "give" -- the direct object is the noun phrase "a copy of the amended bylaws."

Give a registration package to each.

Here "each" is the object of the preposition "to."

Reflexive Pronouns

You can use a reflexive pronoun to refer back to the subject of the clause or sentence.

The reflexive pronouns are "myself," "yourself," "herself," "himself," "itself," "ourselves," "yourselves," and "themselves." Note each of these can also act as an intensive pronoun.

Each of the highlighted words in the following sentences is a reflexive pronoun:

Diabetics give themselves insulin shots several times a day.
The Dean often does the photocopying herself so that the secretaries can do more important work.
After the party, I asked myself why I had faxed invitations to everyone in my office building.
Richard usually remembered to send a copy of his e-mail to himself.
Although the landlord promised to paint the apartment, we ended up doing it ourselves.

Intensive Pronouns

An intensive pronoun is a pronoun used to emphasise its antecedent. Intensive pronouns are identical in form to reflexive pronouns.

The highlighted words in the following sentences are intensive pronouns:

I myself believe that aliens should abduct my sister.
The Prime Minister himself said that he would lower taxes.
They themselves promised to come to the party even though they had a final exam at the same time.

  .

 

 

To change a pronoun to its possessive form, simply add the word rbs' in front of the pronoun.

English Khmer English Phonetic
my, mine rbs'` roa-bos-khyom
your, yours rbs'G±k roa-bos-naek
your, yours (toward a younger person, young enough as a sibling) rbs'bn roa-bos-pha-oun
your, yours (toward an older person, old enough as a sibling) rbs'bg roa-bos-bong
your, yours (toward a younger person, young enough to be one's child) rbs'ky roa-bos-khmuoy
your, yours (toward an older man, old enough to be one's father) rbs'BU roa-bos-bhu
your, yours (toward an older woman, old enough to be one's mother) rbs'mIg roa-bos-meing
his, her, hers rbs'Kat' roa-bos-kuat
their, theirs rbs'ek roa-bos-ke

Examples:

English Khmer English Phonetic
This is my car. enHKWLanrbs'` nih-kue-larn-roa-bos-khyom
This is her youngest son. enHKWCakUneBArbs'Kat' nih-kue-chea-koun-peue-roa-bos-kuat

To change a noun to its possessive form, reposition the noun after the noun it possesses.

Examples:

English Khmer English Phonetic
That is the house's roof. enaHKWCadMbUlpH nus-kue-chea-dom-boul-pha-taeh
This is the car's seat. enHKWCaeCIgm"aLan nis-kue-chea-choeung-ma-larn