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GUIDE TO THE TEACHERS USING KHMER WEBSITE IN CLASSROOMS

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SCRIPT

CONSONANT

        The consonant chart is designed to assist the learner to recognize and reproduce the non-romanized Khmer consonants, both sound and script.  Learners should be encourage to listen and repeat after what they could hear and see the animation of each character that appears on the right frame of the page till they are able to identify and say the names of the consonants.  Learners could hear the sound of each consonant by clicking on the speaker icon that is placed below the consonant and its animation picture. The example of how each consonant can be written in a word is followed.  Picture is provided as visual aid to help visual learners.  The sound of each word can be heard by clicking on the speaker icon on the right hand of each word.  Note of how consonant is rarely used is listed below each consonant.

SUB-CONSONANT

        When two consonants are pronounced consecutively within a word, the second consonant is written in a  special sub-consonant from below the first consonant.  The sub-consonants are called (ceeN) of consonant "consonant feet".  The form of sub-consonant in most cases a smaller version of consonant, but without  the top part of consonant which is called (sAq) (hair) of consonant.  The combination of consonant and the sub-consonant is called (pcieN domruet).  Initial clusters  are called  ( pcun) cnee)q psAm ).  Medial clusters are called (pcun) cnee)q pn)ae ceeN ).  The sub-consonants are used as initial clusters and medial clusters.  When there is a consonant cluster, (including both an initial consonant and its sub-consonant), the vowel symbols are written around the consonant cluster (either before, above, or after the consonant cluster, and in some cases a combination of these). In all cases, however, the vowel is pronounced after the consonant cluster.

Similar to the consonant chart, sub-consonant chart is intended to assist the learner to recognize and reproduce Khmer sub-consonants, both sound and script.  Learners should be encourage to listen and repeat after what they could hear and see the animation of each character that appears on the right frame of the page till they are able to identify and say the names of the sub-consonants.  Learners could hear the sound of each sub-consonant by clicking on the speaker icon that is placed below the consonant and its animation picture.  The natural sound of initial cluster and medial cluster is displayed below the animation script. The example of how each sub-consonant can be written in a word is followed.  Picture is provided as visual aid to help visual learners.  The sound of each word can be heard by clicking on the speaker icon on the right hand of each word.

VOWEL

The Cambodian vowel may consist of one or a combination of elements written before, above below, or after the initial consoant.  There are 24 vowels in Khmer.  Since the abstract vowel (AA) embedded in a consoant, there are only 23 vowels shown in the vowel table.  The pornunciation of a vowel in Khmer is deermined by the series of the initial consonant that it accompanies.

The vowel chart is intended to assist the learner to recognize and reproduce vowel, both sound and script.  Learners should be encourage to listen and repeat after what they could hear and see the animation of each character that appears on the right frame of the page till they are able to identify and say the names of the vowels.  Learners could hear the sound of each vowel by clicking on the speaker icon that is placed below the vowel and its animation picture. The example of how each vowel can be written in a word is followed.  Picture is provided as visual aid to help visual learners.  The sound of each word can be heard by clicking on the speaker icon on the right hand of each word and an important note is provided at the end of each page.

INDEPENDENT VOWEL

        Independent vowels are known as /sraq phn) tue/ (complete vowel) because they incorporate both an initial consonants and a vowel.   Independent vowel  ឥ ឧ ឪ ឯ ព្ធ and  include an initial /q/ and are listed in the official dictionary along with other words that are spelled with an initial and the equivalent vowel.   Independent vowel bj and b/   include an initial /r/ and are listed in the official dictionary along with an initial r  and the equivalent vowel. Independent vowel Bj   and      includes an initial /l/ and are listed in the official dictionary along with an initial consonant l.

        The independent vowel chart is intended to assist the learner to recognize and reproduce independent vowel, both sound and script.  Learners should be encourage to listen and repeat after what they could hear and see the animation of each character that appears on the right frame of the page till they are able to identify and say the names of the independent vowels.  Learners could hear the sound of each vowel by clicking on the speaker icon that is placed below the independent vowel and its animation picture. The example of how each independent vowel can be written in a word is followed.  Picture is provided as visual aid to help visual learners.  The sound of each word can be heard by clicking on the speaker icon on the right hand of each word and an important note is provided at the end of each page.

DIACRITIC

        Diacritics are marks that are used to add to a letter to indicate a special phonetic value or distinguish words that are graphically identical.  This page is design to help learners understanding of how Khmer diacritics are used and when those symbol can be used.

READING FOR BEGINNING KHMER

      The 18 reading lessons and 7 reading from folktales are designed for learners of Khmer who have already learned to read the script.  When these lessons are used in class, the role of the teacher is to facilitate the learners' consolidation of the vocabulary and structures presented in each lesson.

Introduction to the Lesson

        As students are assigned to read the lesson ahead of class, the teacher may assume that the students understand the structure and vocabulary presented in the reading text.

  1. In class, the teacher should try to elicit some general information that related to the text.
  2. Write down vocabulary that relate to the text during the elicitation.
  3. Check with the class if the students understand each of individual word that the class produced.
  4. Ask the learners some leading questions which links to the text

Presentation and Practice

  1. At this stage, the teacher may like to present a list of vocabulary that listed on the right frame of the reading text and go through with the students.
  2. Allow student to read the text individually or in a group of three.  Students may use the audio on the top of the text to help with their reading.
  3. On the right frame there are comprehension questions that teacher could used to test the student comprehension about the reading text.
  4. Some pronunciation of words can be found on the right frame of each text.  The teacher may like to use in helping with the pronunciation.
  5. The flash card and matching exercises can be used to help student or teacher with the translation of each word in that context.
  6. At the end of reading activity, teacher could focus on some sentence structure that is being used in the text.  The grammar note for each lesson is located on the right frame of each text.
  7. Teacher may assign a simple task for the students.  Students should be in a group of three, and they should come up with a similar writing text.  This activity help the learners to used the language that the teacher presented at the beginning of this lesson.
  8. The group representatives are asked to read their work to the class.  Allow students to ask some comprehension questions to other group.

Assessment and Homework

  1. Check the work that student works on during the group writing activity whether they could produce the language properly.

  2. Select some of the most frequency words from the vocabulary list and assign the learners to write sentences by using those words.

READING FOR INTERMEDIATE KHMER

       There are 9 reading texts on reading expository, 4 reading texts about Cambodian politics.  These reading lessons are designed for learners of Khmer who have already understand some basic sentence structure in Khmer Language.  When these lessons are used in class, the role of the teacher is to facilitate the learners' consolidation of the vocabulary and structures presented in each lesson.

Introduction to the Lesson

Students are required to read the lesson ahead of class.  The teacher assumes that the students understand the structure and vocabulary presented in the reading text.

  1. In class, the teacher should try to elicit some general information that related to the text.

  2. Write down vocabulary that relate to the text during the elicitation.

  3. Check with the class if the students understand each of individual word that the class produced.

  4. Ask the learners some leading questions which links to the text

Presentation and Practice

  1. At this stage, the teacher may like to present a list of vocabulary that listed on the right frame of the reading text and go through with the students.

  2. Allow student to read the text individually or in a group of three.

  3. On the right frame there are comprehension questions that teacher could used to test the student comprehension about the reading text.

  4. Some pronunciation of words can be found on the right frame of each text.  The teacher may like to use in helping with the pronunciation.

  5. The flash card and matching exercises can be used to help student or teacher with the translation of each word in that context.

  6. Teacher may assign a simple task for the students.  Students should be in a group of three, and they should come up with a similar writing text.  This activity help the learners to used the language that the teacher presented at the beginning of this lesson.

  7. Teacher initiates a discussion for the class and the students must involve in the discussion. 

  8. Teacher provides equal opportunity for students to present their idea and question the class.

Assessment and Homework

  1. During the discussion, the teacher should be able to evaluate the proficiency and accuracy of the students.

  2. Select some of the most frequency words from the vocabulary list and assign the learners to write paragraph by using those words.

CONVERSATION

            There are 13 units in the conversation page and each unit consists of 4 to 5 lessons.  These lessons are designed to assist Khmer learners to understand some basic spoken Khmer language in a variety of situations.  When these lessons are used in class, the role of the teacher is to facilitate the learners' consolidation of the vocabulary and structures presented in each lesson.  The following steps are some suggestion for teaching spoken Khmer in the classroom.

Introduction to the Lesson

Students are required to read the lesson ahead of class.  The teacher assumes that the students understand the structure and vocabulary presented in the reading text.

  1. In class, the teacher should try to elicit some general information that related to the text.

  2. Write down vocabulary that relate to the text during the elicitation.

  3. Check with the class if the students understand each of individual word that the class produced.

  4. Ask the learners some leading questions which links to the text

Presentation and Practice

  1. At this stage, the teacher may like to present a list of vocabulary or phrases that listed on the right frame of the reading text and go through with the students.

  2. Allow student to read and listen to the dialogue individually or in groups.  The dialogue is spoken by a man and a woman or by two men.

  3. Students should be given some opportunity to practice the dialogue in pair or in groups.

  4. Practice to read and pronoun some of the unfamiliar words and phrases, which listed on the right frame.

  5. Allow student to work on the matching game to get the meaning of words as well as its translation.

  6. Provide students with some situation and let them produce a conversation.  Learners have some opportunity to use some of words or phrases in the conversation.  Select some Pair or group to presents their dialogue in front of the classroom.

  7. Teachers should present some of structure to the class and then let them form some similar sentences.

Assessment and Homework

  1. Assign next reading dialogue lesson for the students. 

  2. Select some common expressions and allow student to form a conversation on their own.

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Consonants | Vowels | Sub-consonant | Independent Vowels | Writing | Reading

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