Cambodian, also known as Khmer, is the official language of the Kingdom of Cambodia and it is spoken by almost all Cambodians. Khmer is also understood by people in many bordering countries such as Thailand (in the eastern provinces of Buriram, Surin, and Srisket in the northern Thailand), in the Mekong Delta region of South Vietnam, and in southern Laos (Huffman, 1970).
Cambodian is the major modern representative of the Mon-Khmer language family which includes hundreds of related dialects scattered over most of mainland Southeast Asia. As for foreign influences on the language, the Khmer language has borrowed many words from Sankrit. With the advent of Theravada Buddhism at the beginning of the fifteenth century, Khmer began to borrow Pali words, and continues to use Pali as a major source of neologisms today (Huffman 1970). During the period of French domination, many French words were borrowed into the language and have become a part of the colloquial language, as well as medical and technical terms. There is also a smattering of Chinese and Vietnamese loanwords in colloquial speech.
Unlike Thai, Vietnamese, and Lao, Khmer is non-tonal and has a high percentage of disyllabic words which are derived from monosyllabic bases by prefixation, and infixation. (Huffman, 1970)
II. Writing System
The Cambodian script (called Khmer letters) are all probably derived from various forms of the ancient Brahmi script of South India. The Cambodian script has symbols for thirty-three consonants, twenty-four dependent vowels, twelve independent vowels, and several diacritic symbols. Most consonants have reduced or modified forms, called sub-consonants, when they occur as the second member of a consonant cluster. Vowels may be written before, after, over, or under a consonant symbol.
Some efforts to standardize Khmer spelling have been attempted, but inconsistencies persist, and many words have more than one accepted spelling. A two-volume dictionary prepared under the direction of the Venerable Chuon Nath of the Buddhist Institute in Phnom Penh is the standard work on Khmer lexicography.
Khmer is divided into three historical stages: Old Khmer (seventh to twelfth century A.D.), Middle Khmer (twelfth to seventeenth century A.D.), and Modern Khmer (seventeenth century to the present). It is likely that Old Khmer was the language of Chenla. The language of Funan was most probably a Mon-Khmer language. The earliest inscription in Khmer, found at Angkor Borei in Takev Province south of Phnom Penh, dates from A.D. 611. (Huffman, 1970)
There are thirty-three letters in the Cambodian writing system. They are arranged in five groups according to the position of the articulation, proceeding from the back to the front of the mouth, and a sixth group labeled as miscellaneous. The consonants in modern Cambodian are also divided into two categories or series. The first series is voiceless and the second series is voiced (sometimes are called light voiced and heavy voiced). The table below provides the symbol of all consonants sounds in IPA symbol with the first and second series sound. (Huffman, 1970)
|Pronunciation 1st Series||Pronunciation 2nd Series|
As mentioned above, the consonants in modern Cambodian have two series. The first series is voiceless and the second series is voiced (sometimes are called light voiced and heavy voiced). Here is a table to compare the two different sounds in the first and second series.
Pronunciation 1st Series
Pronunciation 2nd Series
When two consonants are pronounced consecutively within a word, the second consonant's symbol is written in a special sub-consonant form which is placed below the first consonant. The sub-consonant always follows the consonant in the pronunciation. The form of the sub-consonant is in most cases a smaller version of its consonant version but some look completely different from the superscript. The tables provided here are the lists of the sub-consonant and the consonant. (Huffman, 1970)
The Cambodian vowel may consist of one or a combination of elements written before, above, below, or after the initial consonant. There are 24 vowels in Khmer. Since the abstract vowel (AA) is embedded in a consonant, there are only 23 vowels shown in the table below. The pronunciation of a vowel in Khmer is determined by the series of the initial consonant that it accompanies. Click on the vowels to listen to their pronunciation and practice with the consonants.
The pronunciation of a vowel in Cambodian is determined by the two series of consonants (first and second series). Examples of how to pronounce a vowel with the first and second series consonant are found in the Vowels page. The table below provides the symbol of all vowel sounds in IPA symbol with the first and second series sound. (Huffman, 1970)
Name of Vowel in IPA
|េ xឿ||Sraq he||he||he|
|េ xៀ||Sraq ie||ie||ie|
|េ x||Sraq ei||ei||ee|
|ែ x||Sraq ae||ae||EE|
|ៃ x||Sraq ay||ay||hy|
|េ xា||Sraq ao||ao||oo|
|េ xៅ||Sraq aw||aw||hw|
|េ xះ||Sraq eh||eh||ih|
|េ xាះ||Sraq Ah||Ah||uh|
VI. Independent Vowel
Independent vowels are known as /sraq phn) tue/ (complete vowel) becasue they incorporate both an initial consonant and a vowel. In the table below, independent vowel from 1 to 5 and 10 to 11 include an initial /q-/ and are listed in the official dictionary along with other words that are spelled with an initial G and the equivalent vowel. Independent vowel 6 and 7 include an initial /r/ and are listed in the official dictionary along with an initial r and the equivalent vowel. Independent vowel 8 and 9 includes an initial /l/ and are listed in the official dictionary along with an initial consonant l . (Huffman, 1970)
Name of Independent Vowels
Value of Independent Vowels
VII. Diacritic (Huffman, 1970)
1. The Bantaq bn5k' ( ' )
Diacritic Bantaq occurs on the top of the final consonant of a syllable and it is used to shorten the vowel of that syllable. All Khmer consonant there is an inherent vowel. The inherent vowel for first series consonant is /AA/ and second consonant is /OO/.
2. Treysap RtIsBV ( ~ )
Treysap is used to convert four of the first series consonants s h b and G which have no second series counterpart to the second series consonant s~ h~ b~ and G~ .
3. Mousekatoan mUsikTn5 ( " )
Mousekatoan is used to convert six of the second series consonants g Baj m y r and v which has no second series counterparts to first series consonants g" Baj"" m" y" r" and v" .
Mousekatoan is used to convert a first series consonant b to b" and from which b" has the conterpart in the second series B .
4. Sanyok-sanha s?eyaKsBaJa ( = )
5. Robaat rZaT ( ` )
Robaat is the reflex of an origanal /r/ in Sanskrit words.
VIII. Punctuation (Huffman, 1970)
1. Khan ( . )
This is Cambodian full stop. It occurs less frequently than the full stop in English. It can be at the end of a single sentence or several sentences dealing with a single topic.
2. baariyaosaan ( .l )
baariyaosaan is a full stop that marks the the entire end of a chapter or an entire text.
3. Laq (.l. )
Laq is used to indicate et cetera.
4. Leiktoo ( [ )
Leiktoo is used to indicate that the word or phrase after which it occurs is to be repeated.