Common Formal Forms of Address in Vietnamese (Outside the home)

  Pronoun Vietnamese
equivalence
How to use it

First person
(singular)

  icon_spk.gif (986 bytes)  Toi
  icon_spk.gif (986 bytes)  Tao *

Refer to yourself (formal)
Refer to yourself with close friends

Second person
(singular)

  icon_spk.gif (986 bytes)  Co
  icon_spk.gif (986 bytes)  Em
  icon_spk.gif (986 bytes)  Anh
  icon_spk.gif (986 bytes)  Ch
  icon_spk.gif (986 bytes)  Ong
  icon_spk.gif (986 bytes)  Ba
  icon_spk.gif (986 bytes)  May *
 

Miss.
Miss, girl (younger than you).
Mr. (older than you).
Miss or Mrs. in formal address.
Mr., gentlement
Mrs., lady
Address between close friends (to use with
Tao (I as a first person))
Third person
(singular)

  icon_spk.gif (986 bytes)  Em ay
  icon_spk.gif (986 bytes)  Anh ay
   
  icon_spk.gif (986 bytes)  Ong ay
 

boy (younger than you).
Mr. (older than you or slighly younger than you in formal address).
Mr., gentlement (older than you or person in higher status.)

  icon_spk.gif (986 bytes)  Em ay
  icon_spk.gif (986 bytes)  Co ay
  icon_spk.gif (986 bytes)  Ch ay
  icon_spk.gif (986 bytes)  Ba ay
 

Miss, girl (younger than you)
Miss.
Miss or Mrs. in formal address.
Mrs., lady (older than you or person in higher status.)

  icon_spk.gif (986 bytes)  Cai o

thing in general
First person
(plural)

  icon_spk.gif (986 bytes)  Chung toi
  icon_spk.gif (986 bytes)  Chung ta
  icon_spk.gif (986 bytes)  Tui em *
 

refer to a group of yourselve
"
refer to a group of yourselve (informal term)
Second person
(plural)

  icon_spk.gif (986 bytes)  Cac em
  icon_spk.gif (986 bytes)  Cac anh
  icon_spk.gif (986 bytes)  Cac ong
  icon_spk.gif (986 bytes)  Cac co
  icon_spk.gif (986 bytes)  Cac ch
  icon_spk.gif (986 bytes)  Cac ba
  icon_spk.gif (986 bytes)  Tui em *
 

address to boys&girls (younger than you).
a group of males (older than you).
a group of older males (Mr., gentlements)
a group of people (Miss)
a group of females (Miss or Mrs.).
a group of older females (Mrs., ladies)
boys and girls (younger than you - informal term)
Third person
(plural)

  icon_spk.gif (986 bytes)  Ho
  icon_spk.gif (986 bytes)  Cac em ay
  icon_spk.gif (986 bytes)  Cac anh ay
  icon_spk.gif (986 bytes)  Cac ong ay
  icon_spk.gif (986 bytes)  Cac co ay
  icon_spk.gif (986 bytes)  Cac ch ay
  icon_spk.gif (986 bytes)  Cac ba ay
  icon_spk.gif (986 bytes)  Tui no *
  icon_spk.gif (986 bytes)  Tui ho *

address to a group of people (in general)
a group of friends (younger than you).
a group of friends
a group of friends
"
"
"
a group of people (in informal term)
"

          Note!!  *'s indicate that pronouns are not in the formal form of address.

Created by Hieu Nguyen
Dan Dan Tu

Audio by Trung Van Vo